After a traumatic brain injury, stroke, or the loss of an eye, a patient may require treatment from a neuro-optometrist for symptoms that include focusing problems, double vision, dizziness, or even visual hallucinations.

Neuro-optometrists assess the way the brain processes information sent by the eyes. They often work in tandem with an occupational or physical therapist to coordinate vision functions with the rest of body. Treatment could also include work with lenses.

The specialty requires a one-year clinical residency, and most practitioners are located in large, urban hospitals.

For more information, visit or the Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Association's (NORA) website.